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The Consumer as an Individual  Presentation Transcript

1.The Consumer as an Individual

2.Model of the Motivation Process

3.Types of Needs
Innate Needs
Physiological (or biogenic) needs that are considered primary needs or motives

Acquired needs
Generally psychological (or psychogenic) needs that are considered secondary needs or motives

4.Goals
Generic Goals
the general categories of goals that consumers see as a way to fulfill their needs
e.g., “I want to get a graduate degree.”
Product-Specific Goals
the specifically branded products or services that consumers select as their goals
e.g., “I want to get an MBA in Marketing from Kellogg School of Management.”

5.The Selection of Goals
The goals selected by an individual depend on their:
Personal experiences
Physical capacity
Prevailing cultural norms and values
Goal’s accessibility in the physical and social environment

6.Motivations and Goals
Positive Motivation
A driving force toward some object or condition
Approach Goal
A positive goal toward which behavior is directed

7.Rational Versus Emotional Motives
Rationality implies that consumers select goals based on totally objective criteria such as size, weight, price, or miles per gallon
Emotional motives imply the selection of goals according to personal or subjective criteria

8.The Dynamic Nature of Motivation
Needs are never fully satisfied
New needs emerge as old needs are satisfied
People who achieve their goals set new and higher goals for themselves

9.Frustration
Failure to achieve a goal may result in frustration. Some adapt; others adopt defense mechanisms to protect their ego.

10.Defense Mechanism
Methods by which people mentally redefine frustrating situations to protect their self-images and their self-esteem.

11.Arousal of Motives
Physiological arousal
Emotional arousal
Cognitive arousal
Environmental arousal

12.Philosophies Concerned With Arousal of Motives
Behaviorist School
Behavior is response to stimulus
Elements of conscious thoughts are to be ignored
Consumer does not act, but reacts
Cognitive School
Behavior is directed at goal achievement
Need to consider needs, attitudes, beliefs, etc. in understanding consumer behavior

13.Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

14.Murray’s List of
Psychogenic Needs

15.Needs Associated with Inanimate Objects:
Acquisition, Conservancy, Order, Retention, Construction

Needs Reflecting Ambition, Power,
Accomplishment, and Prestige:
Superiority, Achievement, Recognition, Exhibition
Needs Connected with Human Power:
Dominance, Similance, Autonomy

16.A Trio of Needs
Power
individual’s desire to control environment
Affiliation
need for friendship, acceptance, and belonging
Achievement
need for personal accomplishment
closely related to egoistic and self-actualization needs

17.Motivational Research
Qualitative research designed to uncover consumers’ subconscious or hidden motivations. Consumers are not always aware of, or may not wish to recognize, the basic reasons underlying their actions.

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