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Industrial Safety And Accident Prevention  Presentation Transcript

1.Introduction to Industrial Safety and Accident Prevention
2.Accident The American National Safety Council has defined accident as:
 “that occurrence in sequence of events which usually produces unintended injury, death or property damage’’.

3.Causes of Accidents
The causes may be human or mechanical failures. The two broad sources of the accidents may be classified in to:
Unsafe conditions and
Unsafe actions

4.Factors contributing to accidents
Human mechanical causes

5.Mechanical causes
In adequately guarded
Unsafe design or construction
Hazardous arrangement

6.Environmental Causes
Speed of work
Hours of Work
Spread over work period

7.Human causes
Personality factors
Intellectual level
Emotional maturity
Anxiety level

8.Classification of accidents
Fall from height
Striking against
Struck by falling objects
Fall at same level
Inhalation or absorption
Contact with electricity / Electric flash

9.Accident Prevention
Three “Es’’ of Safety
    - Engineering
    - Education
    - Enforcement

10.Controlling Accidents
Discover the causes
Control environmental causes
Control behaviorist causes
Supplementary activities

11.Discovering Accident Causes
The Causes of previous accidents
The existing hazards that will cause accidents unless corrected

12.Reporting Accidents
The first step in effective investigation is the prompt reporting of accidents. Hiding small accidents does not help prevent serious accidents that kill people. If the accidents are not reporting by the employees, they are stealing the authority of the management to prevent accidents.

13.Ten Reasons for not reporting Accidents
Fear of punishment
Concern about the record
Concern for reputation
Fear of Medical treatment
Dislike of medical personnel
Desire to keep personal record clear
Avoid of Red Tape
Desire to prevent work interruptions
Concern about attitude of others
Poor understanding of importance

14.How can we combat these reporting problems
React in more positive way
Give more attention to prevention and control
Recognize individual performance
Develop the value of reporting
Demonstrate belief by action
Do not make mountains out of molehills

15.Reasons to investigate accidents and investigation
To know and understand what happened.
To gather information and data for present and future use.
To deter cause and effect.
 To provide answers for the effectiveness of intervention and prevention approaches.
To document the circumstances for legal and workers’ compensation issues.
To become a vital component of your Safety and health program.

16.Purpose of Accident Investigation

17.Tricks to a good interview
Survey the accident to get good picture. Out line what questions need to be answered. Make notes to help remember the things that look different or out of place so you can ask questions about the incident.
Select a suitable place where the witness will feel comfortable.
Control the impulse to get right to the facts.
Explain the purpose of the interview is to find out what happened and why, so the problem can be corrected before the another accident.
Actual testimony should start by asking the witness to tell, in his or her own words, what was observed, seen, heard, or known about the accident. Don’t ask for chronological order.

18.Don’t prompt or question the witness until he or she appears to have exhausted his or her memory. Let the witness have silent periods to collect their thoughts. After the witness has exhausted his memory, you can ask question to
a) Expand detail or earlier testimony.
b) Answer predetermined questions you formed while getting the big picture.

19.The questions should be neutral in form so they require the witness to form answers in their own words.
While closing the interview, the investigator can employ control questions to evaluate the witness ability to observe and remember.
The control questions can include:
 -    Time and location of the accident
 -    identification of other witness
  -    Actions of the people after the accident

20.Another important question to ask the witness is “what attracted your attention to the accident”?

21.Occupational Safety and Health Management in India is guided by the broad policies of the Ministry of Labour, Ministry of Industry & Ministry of Environment & Forests, Govt. of India.

22.Legal Provisions & Enforcement
Factories Act, 1948
Environment (Protection) Act, 1986
Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemicals Rules, 1989
Dangerous Machines (Regulation) Act, 1983

23.Legal Provisions & Enforcement
Overview :
Basically, major number of industries are statutorily governed by the Factories Act, 1948, besides other statutes which cover other specific aspects of safety in the industrial activities, e.g. treatment of effluents, pollution control, hazardous wastes management, etc.

24.Factories Act, 1948
The Factories Act has been existing in India since 1881.  The Act provides for the health, safety, welfare and other aspects of workers in factories.
In 1987 major amendments in the Act were incorporated which covered three major areas i) basic approach ii) health protection & control of accidents and iii) emergency planning in the factories engaged in hazardous processes.

25.Major Provisions
Approval, licensing and registration of factories
Duties of occupier, manufacturers etc.
Safety and Health policy and organization
Health and hygiene standards
Safeguards for Dangerous machines, material handling, pressure plant, floors, stairs, access and covering to pits, sumps opening, etc.
Precautions against dangerous fumes, gases and explosive dust and precautions in case of fire
Stability of buildings, machines etc. and maintenance
Notice of accidents, dangerous occurrences and diseases

26.Provisions for Hazardous Process Industry
Site Appraisal Committee
Disclosure of information to Chief Inspector     of  Factories
Local Authority
Workers and general public, On-site emergency plan, Medical examinations and     records
Permissible limits of exposures of chemicals/ substances
Right to workers to know hazards, etc.

27.Section 7-A: General Duties of the Occupier
Every occupier shall ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, the health, safety and welfare of all workers while they are at work in the factory.
Without prejudice to the generality of the provisions of sub-s. (1), the matters to which such duty extends, shall include:-
The provision and maintenance of plant and systems of work in the factory that are safe and without risks to health;

28.General Duties of the occupier
The arrangements in the factory for ensuring safety and absence of risks to health in connection with the use, handling, storage and transport of articles and substances;
The provision of such information, instruction, training and supervision as are necessary to ensure the health and safety of all workers at work;

29.General Duties of the occupier
The maintenance of all places of work in the factory in a condition that is safe and without risks to health and the provision and maintenance of such means of access to, and egress from, such places as are safe and without such risks;
The provision, maintenance or monitoring of such working environment in the factory for the workers that is safe, without risks to health and adequate as regards facilities and arrangements for their welfare at work.

30.General Duties of the occupier
Except in such cases as may be prescribed, every occupier shall prepare, and, as often as may be appropriate, revise, a written statement of his general policy with respect to the health and safety of the workers at work and the organisation and arrangements for the time being in force for carrying out that policy, and to bring the statement and any revision thereof to the notice of all the workers in such manner as may be prescribed.

31.Provisions for OHS Management
The essential requirements for the Appointment of Safety Officer:
i.    Wherein one thousand or more workers are ordinarily employed, or
ii.    Wherein any manufacturing process or operation is carried out involving risk of bodily injury, poisoning or disease or any other hazard to health to the persons employed in the factory, the occupier shall appoint Safety Officer. The no. of Safety Officers is specified by State Government notification.

32.Appointment of Factory Medical Officer
For Factories carrying out “Hazardous Process*” (*“Hazardous Process” means any process or activity in relation to an Industry where unless special case is taken, raw materials used therein or the intermediate or finished products, bye-products, wastes or effluents thereof would:-
Cause material impairment to the health of the   persons engaged in or connected therewith or
Result in the pollution of the general environment)

33.For Factories employing above 200 workers:
There shall be a full time Factory Medical Officer      for factories employing up to 500 workers and one more Medical Officer for every additional 1,000workers or Part thereof.
He should posses a Certificate of Training in Industrial Health of minimum three months duration recognized by the State Government, or He should posses a diploma in Industrial Health.

34.Safety Committee
Is a must in every factory –
wherein 250 or more workers are ordinarily employed, or
which carries on any process or operation declared to be dangerous under Section 87 of the Act; or
which carries on “Hazardous Process” as defined in Factories Act.

35.Committee Composition
Management Representatives :
A senior official, who by his position in the organisation can contribute effectively to the functioning of the Committee, shall be the Chairman;
A Safety Officer, and a Factory Medical Officer wherever available and the Safety Officer in such a case shall be Secretary of the Committee;
A representative each from the production, maintenance and purchase departments.

36.Function and Duties of Safety Committee
Assisting and co-operating with the management in achieving the aims and objectives outlined in the “Health and Safety Policy” of the occupier;
Dealing with all matters concerning health, safety and environment and to arrive at practicable solution to problems encountered;
Creating safety awareness amongst all workers;
Undertaking educational, training and promotional activities

37. Discussing reports on safety, environmental and occupational health surveys, safety audits, risk assessment, Emergency and Disaster Management plans and implementation of the recommendations made in the reports;
 Carrying out health and safety surveys and identifying causes of accidents;
 Looking into any complaint made on the likelihood of an imminent danger to the safety and health of the workers and suggesting corrective measures; and
 Reviewing the implementation of the recommendations made by it.

38.Chemicals Rules, 1989

39.Major Provisions
Enforced by factory inspectorate along with SPCBs/ CPCB
Identification of major hazards and take preventive steps for identified hazards Demonstrate safe operation / emergency preparedness.
Prepare MSDS, ensure proper lebeling of containers.
Preparation of Safety Reports, in case of exceeding threshold quantities of hazardous chemicals storage.
Notification of sites, in case of use of hazardous chemicals storage exceeding threshold quantities.
Preparation of on-site emergency plan and conducting mock drills.

40.Autonomous OSH Origination
National Safety Council of India (Founded in 1966)
Loss Prevention Association of India (Founded in 1978)
National Environmental and Engineering Research Institute
National Institute of Occupational Health
Disaster Management Institute

The Ministry of Environment & forests under Environment Protection Act has constituted 4-Tier “Crisis Groups for Disaster Management of Chemical Accidents” in the country. The Crisis Groups will work under the purview of the “Chemical Accidents (Emergency Planning, Preparedness and Response)rules, 1996”.

42.The Groups are constituted at:
Country level     : Central Crisis Group
State level      : State Crisis Group  
District level     : District Crisis Group
Industry Pocket Level : Local Crisis  Group

43.Penalty for Offences:
Any contravention of any of the provisions of this Act or of any rules made thereunder or of any order in writing given thereunder, the occupier and manager of the factory shall each be guilty of an offence and punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to (two years) or with fine which may extend to (one lakh rupees) or with both;

44.Penalty for Offences:
Provided that where contravention of any of the provisions under S –87 has resulted in an accident causing death or serious bodily injury, the fine shall not be less than (twenty five thousand rupees) in the case of an accident causing death, and (five thousand rupees) in the case of an accident causing serious bodily injury.

45.Penalty for Contravention of the Provisions of SS 41-B, 41-C & 41-H

46.Penalty for Contravention of the Provisions of SS 41-B, 41-C & 41-H

47.Statutory regulations on Construction Safety
The Building and Construction Workers (Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Services) Act, 1996
The Building and Construction Workers (Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Services) Rules, 1998.
The Central Labour Commissioner has been designated as the Director General of Inspections for enforcing the Central Act, 1996 and Central Rules, 1998.

48.Industrial Accident Statistics in India
Year    Non-fatal    Fatal    
1998    96,232    1,026    
1999    81,815    974    
2000    28585    660    

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